HHH Prof. Bryson speaks on leadership and strategic planning in Korea

crossposted from Humphrey Herald: 

Faculty Presentations in Korea

Professor John Bryson delivered keynote addresses at two recent conferences he attended in Korea. He spoke on "The Emergence of Collective Leadership in Collaborations" at a joint conference of the Korea Institute of Public Administration and the Korea Association for Policy Studies in Seoul on June 15. 

At a conference in Busan on June 20, Bryson delivered a talk entitled "What Does Strategic Planning Look Like?"

UMN Staff Resource Guide: New Graduate International Students

Fall 2018 Staff Resource Guide: New Graduate International StudentsThe Fall 2018 Staff Resource Guide: New Graduate International Students is now available. Bookmark it! It provides information and resources to help in assisting international students during their first semester. By creating smooth transitions we can help international students succeed and thrive at the University.

The Graduate School 321 Johnston Hall, 101 Pleasant Street SE Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA

Save the Children internship

https://www.savethechildren.net/jobs/job-details/5621

PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY INTERNSHIP OPPORTUNITY

The role

Save the Children is looking to engage an intern to support its Program Quality and Development unit in implementing its regional Program on Youth and Civil Society in the Middle East and North Africa region. The intern will report to the Technical Manager youth and civil society.

About the Program

The Youth and Civil Society is a regional program that aims to strengthen civil society actors to promote young people’s voice and participation at local and regional level in Lebanon, Yemen, Jordan, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt. This is a multi-location, multi-sector program with a focus on youth and civil society strengthening. The program is regional in nature, and it is implemented both directly and with local partners.

What this role can offer to the intern

This is paid internship with a health care insurance.

We also offer the opportunity to:

  • Learn the ins and outs of global humanitarian and development work.
  • Gain exposure to a full range of non-profit management issues.
  • Grow your network of professional contacts.
  • Be mentored and coached by senior staff.
  • Live an exciting and rewarding professional experience.
The role holder will play a representational role, and should expect to represent Save the Children in external meetings with the UN, donors and other stakeholders, as needed.

Qualifications and experience

• BA or MA (completed or in progress) in international relations, conflict resolution, gender studies, Middle East studies, Political science, international development, or a related field.
• Excellent writing, editing, and communication skills in English .
• Computer proficiency.
• Interest in youth civic engagement
• Familiarity with the MENA context
• Ability to live in Amman
• Comfort in cross-cultural contexts.

Curious and passionate about making a real difference
• Ability to maintain professionalism, creativity, and enthusiasm while working in a fast-paced, multi-cultural environment with minimal supervision.
• Self-starter, able to work independently, and willing to take on tasks small and large.
• Prior international or cross-cultural experience.

Contract length: 5 months.

The Organisation

We employ approximately 25,000 people across the globe and work on the ground in over 100 countries to help children affected by crises, or those that need better healthcare, education and child protection. We also campaign and advocate at the highest levels to realise the right of children and to ensure their voices are heard.

We are working towards three breakthroughs in how the world treats children by 2030:
No child dies from preventable causes before their 5th birthday
All children learn from a quality basic education and that,
Violence against children is no longer tolerated

We know that great people make a great organization, and that our employees play a crucial role in helping us achieve our ambitions for children. We value our people and offer a meaningful and rewarding career, along with a collaborative and inclusive workplace where ambition, creativity, and integrity are highly valued.

Application Information:

Please apply using a cover letter and up-to-date CV as a single document. Please also include details of your current remuneration and salary expectations. A copy of the full role profile can be found at www.savethechildren.net/jobs

We need to keep children safe so our selection process reflects our commitment to the protection of children from abuse.

Sent by former Humphrey Fellow Ikram Ben Said, for information purposes only.

Assoc Dir of Grad Admission, Wilson School of Public & Intern'l Affairs

Sent by: Ms. Carmen Iezzi MEZZERA, Executive Director
Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs


Associate Director of Graduate Admission at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs

Requisition #2018-8954
Overview

Since 1930, the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs (WWS) has offered a distinctive educational approach that strikes a careful balance between theory and practice. Our mission is to prepare students for careers in public service, training them to apply well-honed analytical skills and substantive knowledge to the world’s most important policy issues.

The Wilson School offers three degree-granting programs: the Master in Public Affairs (MPA), the Master in Public Policy (MPP), and the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Public Affairs. The WWS also organizes the Junior Summer Institute (JSI) in conjunction with the Public Policy and International Affairs (PPIA) fellowship program. The JSI program aims to reach college students from underrepresented racial and ethnic backgrounds and students from families with lower socio-economic backgrounds who demonstrate an interest in and commitment to public service.

Our students are part of an energetic, intellectually stimulating community which includes alumni who are committed to improving the world through public service, advocacy, evidence-based scholarship, and public/private partnerships. With fewer than 200 fellow graduate students enrolled at any given time, our community is incredibly tight-knit and renowned for its strong professional network.

The WWS takes great pride in its commitment to admitting and enrolling a diverse student body along many lines, including socioeconomic, ethnic, cultural, and ideological backgrounds. The School also offers nearly every graduate student full tuition remission as well as a generous, need-based stipend to cover living expenses. Most students graduate debt free, giving them the financial freedom to pursue public service careers.
Responsibilities

Position Summary:

Reporting to the WWS Director of Graduate Admissions, the Associate Director of Graduate Admissions will be involved in all aspects of the recruitment and selection of highly qualified and diverse students for the Master in Public Affairs (MPA) and Master in Public Policy (MPP) programs, and for the Junior Summer Institute (JSI). The Associate Director will participate in the on-going development, planning, implementation, and assessment of recruitment strategies and effective admission and office policies and processes to support best practices.

Responsibilities will include reading, evaluating, and summarizing hundreds of graduate admission applications; serving on WWS admission committees; representing the School to diverse audiences; domestic and international WWS recruitment travel as well as joint recruitment with other professional schools; recruiting students from a wide range of backgrounds; assisting with yield events; and meeting with prospective and admitted students.

In addition, the Associate Director will have primary responsibility for the development and oversight of the Master in Public Policy program’s outreach and recruitment strategy. Under this purview, s/he will be tasked with building out communications, travel, and yield plans specifically for the one-year, mid-career program. This will include managing MPP partnerships such as those with the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Coast Guard, and the U.S. Navy. This year marks the 20th anniversary of the launch of the School’s mid-career program as a degree-granting program, and we seek a resourceful and strategic leader to build out targeted outreach as well as create stronger ties with humanitarian non-governmental organizations and domestic public agencies.

In conjunction with the Director, the Associate Director will help develop and implement plans to increase the School’s racial and ethnic diversity as well as the representation of international students from developing countries. S/he will partner on admissions marketing and communications initiatives, and may oversee student and alumni volunteers. The Associate Director will help establish and sustain important relationships with key partners in professional organizations, workplaces, military branches, colleges, and other institutions, and will engage alumni in outreach initiatives.

In absence of the Director, the Associate Director will act in her stead.
Qualifications

Knowledge, Skills and Abilities:

The ideal candidate will have a graduate degree in a related field, preferably in Public Affairs, International Affairs or Public Policy, and a minimum of seven years of professional experience in public service. Previous experience in highly-selective graduate admissions and/or graduate higher education administration is preferred.

The candidate should have excellent analytical, organizational, and problem-solving skills, attention to detail, and demonstrated interpersonal and written and oral communication skills. The candidate must be able to establish rapport and relate positively to people with a variety of interests, backgrounds, and points of view by using tact, diplomacy, and discretion. Likewise, the Associate Director must exercise good judgment and integrity while working collegially with faculty, students, staff, and alumni in a high pressure, deadline-driven environment.

Must be comfortable with technology and proficient in the use of Microsoft Word, Excel, and social media tools. Facility with CollegeNET and Access a plus.

Additional Qualifications:
  • Resourceful and self-motivated problem solver who takes initiative and has the ability to work independently and meet deadlines
  • Shows intellectual curiosity and a commitment to excellence
  • Team player with empathy, respect for others, a collaborative approach, and a sense of humor
  • Adaptable with a calm demeanor and a positive, can-do attitude
  • Passionate about the School’s mission
  • Willingness and ability to maintain a positive and visible profile in the School community 
Princeton University is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer and all qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to age, race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, national origin, disability status, protected veteran status, or any other characteristic protected by law. EEO IS THE LAW

The position will remain open until filled, but interested candidates are strongly encouraged to apply as soon as possible. Please apply online at: https://main-princeton.icims.com/jobs/8954/associate-director-of-graduate-admission/job

MDP Aryal, El Shiekh, Mbaye, Ramos & Singh and MPP Kluesner awarded 2018 Judd Fellowship

2018 Judd Fellows from Humphrey School based degree programs

Twenty graduate and professional degree students were awarded fellowships in 2018 through the Walter H. Judd International Graduate & Professional Fellowships. One Judd Alumni Fellowship was awarded to the highest-ranked fellowship applicant and was made possible by generous support of Judd Fellow alumni and matching funds from the Carol and Cliff Stiles Rainbow Fund.

Sadikshya Aryal
Humphrey School of Public Affairs
M.D.P – Development**
Belize
Judd Fellows Aryal and Ramos will design a prototype of biocultural innovations (business model) as part of the development of a broader Maya Economy. The goal of this project is to help the Maya Leaders Alliance transform the valuation of Maya culture. Aryal’s efforts will focus on assessing effects of this innovation on Maya livelihoods, culture and heritage.

Ahmed ElShiekh
Humphrey School of Public Affairs
M.D.P. – International Development and Public Health**
Nigeria
ElShiekh will work with Picture Impact, a Minneapolis based human-centered social design studio, to investigate the reasons for low maternal and child health awareness in Northern Nigeria, design and field test tools appropriate for maternal and child health awareness and education and evaluate the results. The goal is to develop an maternal and child health educational tool for Northern Nigeria that improves health conditions.

Madelaine Kluesner
Humphrey School of Public Affairs
M.P.P./M.P.H – International Development/Global Health**
Uganda
Kluesner will intern with SMS Maama, a social business venture aimed at increasing access to maternal health information through a mobile health (mHealth) application. SMS Maama is conducting a pilot research study to test its health delivery system. As a research intern, Klusner will assist with the implementation, training, and data summation of the focus group portion of this research pilot.

Seyni Mbaye
Humphrey School of Public Affairs
M.D.P.– Program Evaluation**
Colombia
Colombia’s Decree 1848-2017 lowered water filtration standards, allowing the government to spend taxpayers’ money on less sophisticated water filtration systems such as BioSand Filters. As part of a team, Mbaye will evaluate the adequacy of BioSand systems, from the perspective of the users. His team’s evaluation will contribute to the decision whether to distribute this technology.

Juliana Ramos
Humphrey School of Public Affairs
M.D.P. – Economic Development**
Belize
Judd Fellows Ramos and Aryal will intern with the Maya Leaders Alliance (MLA) supporting the MLA in their design of a prototype framework for biocultural innovations, which feature local practices and resources. They will design a culturally responsive economic governance model that incorporates their sustainable practices.

Surabhi Singh
Humphrey School of Public Affairs
M.D.P – Development Practice**
Kenya
As part of a team, Singh will work with Komaza, a Kenyan-based business that works with marginalized small-scale farmers owning dry-land to grow trees as a cash crop through their “micro-forestry” program. The goal of the project is to determine whether Komaza’s current micro-forestry model, which has been successful in two counties in the coastal areas in the south is scalable to other parts of Kenya, particularly in central Kenya, and if not, assess what aspects need to be modified to be more feasible for replication.

* The Judd Alumni Fellowship is awarded to the highest-ranked fellowship applicant. The Judd Alumni Fellowship award is made possible by generous support of Judd Fellow alumni and matching funds from the Carol and Cliff Stiles Rainbow Fund.

** The Master of Development Practice is an interdisciplinary program jointly administered by the Humphrey School and the Interdisciplinary Center for the Study of Global Change (ICGC) and spans several academic disciplines across the University of Minnesota.


http://global.umn.edu/funding/judd/index.html#recipients-tab

The 2018 UMN Judd Fellows...

...will travel to 18 countries:

Belize • Colombia • Dominican Republic • Ecuador • Ghana • Haiti • Italy • Kenya • Laos • Mexico • Namibia • Nepal • Portugal • Scotland • Switzerland • Tanzania • Thailand • Uganda

...are studying in five different colleges in a range of programs:

Atmospheric Science • Ethnomusicology • Creative Writing • Public Health • Economic Development • International Development • Maternal and Child Health • International Health Policy • Art History • Immunology • Physical Therapy • Global Medicine

...are doing amazing things:

researching global climate change • interning at the Deafness and Hearing Loss Prevention Programme at the World Health Organization • researching the ethnography of Lisbon-style fado music • completing a physical therapy rotation • developing a maternal and child health educational tool that improves health conditions • researching the management of severe infectious diseases and pediatric disorders in a low-resource setting • researching the efficacy of a homemade insulin storage pouch

HHH Prof. Johnson on Minnesota's growing population diversity

Crossposted from Humphrey Herald:

Minnesota’s Diversity Growth Continues, Census Figures Say
Assistant Professor Janna Johnson comments for the Pioneer Press on new census figures showing Minnesota's population continues to grow more diverse.

Selections from the Pioneer Press:

"The latest data showed that populations of people of color have increased faster in Minnesota than the rest of the nation since 2010. Meanwhile, the state’s white population growth remained relatively stagnant.

The change can be seen in the ethnic communities emerging around St. Paul; in the expansion of organizations such as the Karen Organization of Minnesota and the Hmong American Partnership; and in St. Paul Public Schools, where in 2010 district families spoke 77 different languages at home — that stood at 128 languages in 2017.

Janna Johnson, an assistant professor at the University of Minnesota’s Humphrey School of Public Affairs who studies minority populations, said the latest numbers likely don’t tell the entire story. Minority populations tend to be undercounted, meaning Minnesota’s is likely even larger, she said."

Former Carnegie Fellow Ramadan at Humphrey School: "Time to rethink inequality in Arab states"

crossposted from The ERF Policy Portal Forum: https://theforum.erf.org.eg/2018/07/03/time-rethink-inequality-arab-states/ 

Assistant Professor Racha Ramadan,  from the Department of Economics in the Faculty of Economics and Political Science at Cairo University, was in residence at the Humphrey School during the Spring term 2014 on a program sponsored by the Andrew Carnegie Centennial Fellowships in Support of Arab Region Social Science, a grant to the Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, under supervision of HHH Prof. Ragui Assaad.

Khalid Abu-Ismail and Racha Ramadan
July 03, 2018

There are many gaps in our understanding of trends in both money metric inequality and multidimensional inequality in Arab states. This column previews a forthcoming report that will explore fundamental questions: why study inequality; with what theoretical approaches and measurement frameworks; and inequality between whom?

In a nutshell
  • According to measures such as the Gini index, inequality is relatively low in the Arab region; yet it is perceived as a major factor behind the uprisings of 2011.
  • Harmonised data for 12 Arab countries provide a unique opportunity to examine trends in inequality of outcome and inequality of opportunity over time.
  • Redistribution of income to workers in the lowest quintiles is likely to result in both higher growth per capita and more rapid poverty reduction.
According to measures such as the Gini index, inequality is relatively low in the Arab region (Page, 2007). Yet inequality is perceived as a major factor behind the uprisings of 2011 (Verme, 2014).

The World Bank (2015) calls this the ‘Arab inequality puzzle’. The puzzle shows that despite improved data infrastructure and a rapidly evolving body of research in recent years compared with 2010 (Bibi and Nabli, 2010), there are still many gaps in our understanding of trends in both money metric inequality and multidimensional inequality in Arab states.

For example, Figure 1 shows the share of the top decile for MENA countries averaging at around 26.4%, which reveals a relatively moderate level of inequality, and the evidence shows that this share has declined over time in most MENA countries. On the other hand, the visible manifestations of high and growing economic and social inequalities stand in direct contrast with this empirical stylised fact.

Moreover, although we are still missing a broader narrative on multidimensional inequality, the latest findings on multidimensional poverty show strikingly sub-national disparities in headcount poverty between specific groups, especially between households with highly educated and uneducated heads (where poverty is more than eight times higher among the latter compared with the former).

For this reason, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) and ERF are joining forces to examine the issue in some depth in a forthcoming report with the tentative title ‘Rethinking inequality in Arab states’. The following three questions are important to address:
First, why study inequality in the first place: does it matter?
Second, inequality is a multifaceted subject that lends itself to a variety of theoretical approaches and measurement frameworks. Therefore, it is important to be clear about what form of inequality we are interested in examining and from which theoretical standpoint.
Third, inequality between whom?

Once these basic questions are answered, the more mundane yet no less important issues related to data and measurement methodology can be addressed. Though of interest to students and inequality scholars, the ultimate objective of this exercise is to provide practical and relevant policy considerations to an audience of policy-makers.

The first question may seem absurd from an egalitarian perspective. But it is still valid, particularly if, as evidence suggests, the poorest of the poor are better off today in absolute terms than their parents and grandparents were several decades ago.

To this fundamental question our simple answer is: yes, inequality matters a great deal. For example, as Michael Kalecki observed, ‘capitalists earn what they spend and workers spend what they earn.’ Hence, redistribution will necessarily have an impact on economic growth. Lance Taylor later developed this insight in structuralist macroeconomic models where the impact of redistribution on growth depends on whether the economy is wage- or profit-led.

This debate is enormously important for Arab countries where, as in the case of most developing countries, evidence suggests a wage-led pattern of economic growth. Hence, even if we set aside equity considerations (and there is no reason why we should), then a redistribution of income to workers in the lowest quintiles will result in both higher growth per capita and more rapid poverty reduction.

Complementing this argument, empirical work from the International Monetary Fund (Berg and Ostry, 2017) points out that a low level of inequality may be essential to produce long and stable growth spells. In short, most economists would agree that there is a causal relationship between inequality and growth, though the nature of this relationship may not be perfectly understood and the direction of causality may differ depending on the theoretical framework.

Likewise, country experiences in the context of health and education repeatedly inform us that progress in social indicators at the aggregate level is influenced not only by the quantity of public expenditure but also by its spatial and sectoral distribution. Hence, the case for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals is one and the same as that for reducing social inequality.

Turning to the second question, the body of research on inequality of outcomes in the region is well established in the money metric domain. As noted above, the conventional wisdom is that inequality of expenditure was generally low and declining from 1990 to 2013, with the fastest decline in Gini recorded in Algeria, Iran and Jordan.

There is, however, a serious flaw with the conventional wisdom in that it does not tally with the story coming from national accounts. Many of the countries with a reported moderate level of Gini (such as Egypt, Jordan, Syria before 2010 and Morocco) record large and rising discrepancies in average expenditure between household expenditure surveys and household final consumption expenditures from national accounts.

This suggests that inequality may be much higher and rising if we factor in the expenditure of the richest 1% in these countries (who are typically excluded from these surveys). For example, Alvaredo et al (2017) combine household surveys, national accounts, income tax data and wealth data to estimate the level and evolution of income concentration in the Middle East for the period 1990-2016.

Consistent with what one would expect in rentier economies, their findings show that the Middle East appears to be the most unequal region in the world, with a top decile income share as large as 61%, compared with 36% in Western Europe, 47% in the United States and 55% in Brazil. Clearly, the traditional story on income inequality in the region is problematic at the methodological and empirical level. This clearly contradicts with the story emerging from Figure 1.

Given the many limitations of cross-country analysis of money metric poverty and inequality, there has recently been a growing appeal for the use of multidimensional inequality, based on the capability approach of Nobel laureate Amartya Sen.

According to this approach, poverty can be viewed as the inability (or lack of capability) to enjoy the basic rights and freedoms of life. Our approach to inequality is heavily influenced by this school of thought. This means that in response to the second question, our analysis in the report will be mainly focused on inequality in the non-income dimensions: health, education and living conditions.

This brings us to the third question: inequality between whom? As explained by Iqbal (2012), ‘deepening inter-group inequality’ may encourage revolts and uprisings. Hence inter-group inequality between selected demographic groups (rich and poor, men and women, rural and urban, educated and non-educated, etc.) may be a partial explanation for the Arab inequality puzzle (Ramadan et al, 2018).

Whether money metric or multidimensional measures are used, the main research challenge is to decide on which of the two forms of inequality to focus: inequality of outcome or inequality of opportunity – and why? Most recent academic analysis of inequality in the region has been focused on inequality of opportunity.

This attention is well justified. Inequality of outcomes (such as inequality in the distribution of income, wealth, infant mortality, etc.) does not account for individual responsibility for such outcomes. Recently, there has been a growing consensus that societies seeking social and economic justice or equity in living standards should promote equality of opportunity by compensating for inequality arising from ‘circumstances’ beyond individuals’ control, while at the same time, letting individuals bear the consequences of actions or ‘effort’ for which they can be held responsible.

Moreover, both kinds of inequality are correlated as the living conditions into individuals are born may affect their future outcomes (Galal and El Enbaby, 2015). But as noted by Atkinson (2015), the best way to reduce inequality of opportunity is to address inequality of outcomes. Therefore, the report takes a balanced approach with equal attention given to both lines of analysis.

Why now? Building on the recent report on Arab multidimensional poverty (ESCWA et al, 2017), there is now harmonised data for 12 Arab countries covering at least two points in time: one in the early 2000s and another after 2010. Hence, there is a unique opportunity to examine trends in outcome and opportunity inequalities across time and, in response to the third key question, inequality between rich and poor wealth quintiles, men and women, rural and urban areas, and households with highly educated and uneducated heads.

This will not only fill a significant void in the current body of research, but it will also help to evaluate the impact of socio-economic policies over the past decade. At the heart of this task is the question of the effectiveness of public policy in Arab states.

Policies to reduce inequality will obviously depend on the results of our analysis. Still, the forthcoming report will present a policy framework from three distinct angles.

The first angle relates to fiscal policies and employment generation. The report will provide some concrete fiscal redistribution policy actions, specifically, social expenditure and employment schemes for vulnerable groups.

The second angle is a focus on social policies and which interventions can best solve the challenge of reducing both inequality and poverty. Here the experience from other regions and our longstanding partnership with the multidimensional poverty peer network (managed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, OPHI) plays a key role in informing this debate.

Third, and equally important, there needs to be a unifying political economy narrative to assimilate all this information and present it in a historical context. A related question is whether the old social contract (or lack thereof) is sustainable in the context of these findings and if not, what are the urgent institutional reforms from an inequality-focused viewpoint.

We hope this collaborative effort will result not only in answers to these many questions, but also perhaps more importantly, the creation of a regional network with strong links to regional and global centres of excellence that will lead future work on inequality in the MENA and Arab states.

Further reading

Alvaredo, F, L Assouad and T Piketty (2017) ‘Measuring Inequality in the Middle East 1990-2016: The World’s Most Unequal Region?’, CEPR Discussion Paper No. 12405.

Atkinson, AB (2015) Inequality, Harvard University Press.

Berg, A, and J Ostry (2017) ‘Inequality and Unsustainable Growth: Two Sides of the Same Coin?’, IMF Economic Review.

Bibi, S, and MK Nabli (2010) ‘Equity and Inequality in the Arab Region’, ERF Policy Research Report No. 33.

Galal, R, and H El Enbaby (2015) ‘Inequality of Opportunity in Individuals’ Wages and Households’ Assets in Egypt’, ERF Working Paper No. 942.

Iqbal, Z (2012) ‘The Economic Determinants of Arab Democratization’, Middle East Institute.

Page, J (2007) ‘Boom, Bust, and the Poor: Poverty Dynamics in the Middle East and North Africa, 1970-1999’, Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 46: 832-51.

Ramadan, R, V Hlasny and V Intini (2018) ‘Inter-group Expenditure Gaps in the Arab Region and their Determinants: Application to Egypt, Jordan, Palestine and Tunisia’, Review of Income and Wealth.

ESCWA, UNICEF, OPHI and LAS (2017) ‘Multidimensional Poverty in Arab States’, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, United Nations Children’s Fund, Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative and League of Arab States.

Verme, P (2014) ‘Facts and Perceptions of Inequality’, in Inside Inequality in the Arab Republic of Egypt: Facts and Perceptions across People, Time, and Space by P Verme, B Milanovic, S Al-Shawarby, S El Tawila, M Gadallah and A El-Majeed, World Bank.

World Bank (2015) Inequality, Uprisings, and Conflict in the Arab World.

Racha Ramadan Cairo University                                             

Racha Ramadan is an assistant professor in Economics Department at the Faculty of Economics and Political Sciences (FEPS), Cairo University where She did her undergraduate studies. She received her Ph.D. in Economics from Toulouse School of Economics, France. Her research interest includes applied micro-econometrics on poverty, inequality, food security, gender issues and human development in Egypt and other Developing Countries. She worked as an economic consultant for different international organizations such as IFPRI, UNDP-Regional Office in Cairo, World Bank, UN-ESCWA, UN-FAO and IFAD. She was a visiting scholar at Hamburg University in Germany in October 2012, at Chicago University Center in Paris from April 2013 to June 2013 and at the Humphrey School of Public Affairs, Minnesota University during the Spring semester of 2014.
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